Privacy and Technology

The emergence of technology might have been regarded as a blessing to the modern generation, as evidenced by the ease of livelihood felt by people from using technological devices. However, one aspect of human life seems to be threatened by the perpetual emergence of technology – the constitutional right to privacy. Nowadays, people use technological means to save or even enter private information regarding their personal lives, professional lives, or even their business. Similarly, technological gadgets such as surveillance cameras have been installed in almost every location, which has made it quite difficult for people to go by their private lives without fear of intimidation by such cameras of the feeling that they are being monitored in one way or another. Technologies such as social media have even begun to be used in the medical sector, which is such a danger to the privacy of medical information. According to Antheunis et al., this technology helps in “…improving the efficiency. This motive not only refers to cost reduction by using the Internet for health-related reasons but also to improving the quality of healthcare, for example by the possibility to compare different health care providers on the Internet.” As such, private patient information has been left exposed. In this line, this paper presents a comprehensive argument on the adverse effects of technology on privacy and freedom, particularly in the professional, business, and individual lives. The paper presents three arguments: the negative effects of technology on the privacy of personal information, private communications, and workplace/public interactions.

Effect of Technology on Privacy of Personal Information

The current generation operates on almost everything that is technological, which in one way or another captures personal information about people. From the credit cards, people use their telephone bills, their private information is captured. Additionally, people’s credit file carries personal financial information about them. Simple tasks such as sending emails to people also expose significant information about people to the Internet. Although the risks to privacy may not be very obvious, any persons with ill intentions may retrieve the information contained in the sources described above to harm people in one way or another. They may encroach into their personal financial lives, for fraudulent purposes. In 2007, alone, approximately 127 million sensitive paper and electronic records that contained Social Security numbers and other similar information were lost or hacked. These statistics were a record increase in data breaches by a whopping 650% from the previous year. In the same year, a retail firm by the name TJX reported that their systems had been hacked leading 94 million and 45 million debit- and credit cards being stolen, respectively, which is regarded as a landmark data breach in American history.

In another incident of fraud, the British government reported having lost nearly computer discs in 2007. These computer discs purportedly contained personal information for 25 million people, close to half the nation’s total population. The looming merger between DoubleClick, which is an Internet ad company and Google, has sparked worry amongst some privacy advocates who feel that such a partnership would be a threat to individual privacy. According to these privacy advocates, this partnership could presage a period in which firms may periodically eavesdrop on people’s phone calls and their e-mails for purposes of personalizing with incredible precision. Another technological feature that is equally a danger to individual privacy is the Beacon feature by Facebook. This feature notifies users in case their friend’s purchase products from Facebook affiliates. In this case, it is evident that the information age is marred by breach of privacy to the extent that even personal things such as shopping habits are publicly displayed. Due to an outrage from users, Facebook opted to use Beacon as an opt-in service although there were demands to drop altogether.

The protection of private information has been a pressing issue for lawmakers in the United States, particularly. The principal deputy director of National Intelligence in America, Donald Kerr expressed worries that the effort to ensure the privacy of information may prove quite intimidating in view of the kind of technological advancements that people apply in their everyday lives. Typically, every action taken by individuals leaves a trace of personal information, which may be exposed to unauthorized personnel that may use them for fraudulent practices. Privacy advocates have long expressed concerns about the effect of technological advancements on the private lives of individuals. Most of them have projected an era in which governments and corporations can potentially access people’s private information readily given the traces of personal information people leave during their day-to-day actions.

Numerous legislations have been passed forth over years to protect the privacy of information for the people in the United States. While some of these amendments are federal, others are state-based. The most notable legislation in history is the 1974 Privacy Act of 1974. This law forbids the disclosure of particular federal records, which may contain sensitive personal information about individuals. Although this legislation became effective in the following years, the emergence of amendments on exceptions to this law has rendered it ineffective. The limitations are so many that the law has been termed as just a mere legislation that has no notable impact on protecting private information. In view of this flaw in the legislation, there have been numerous incidences of privacy breach. As such, no information regarding the individual lives of people is safe regardless of whether it is in the hand of the government or corporations.

Another act meant to safeguard the private information of individuals is the 1994 Driver’s Privacy Protection Act. This enactment was informed by a series of grave criminal activities that occurred in 1989, which were attributed to the Department of Motor Vehicles. As such, the law prohibited the DMV from releasing private information that may be used to cause any form of harm. However, like the Privacy Act, the effectiveness of this legislation is hampered by the various exemptions outlined in the clause, which totals up to fourteen. One exemption, which has been of concern regarding privacy of information, is the one that permits licensed private investigators to access personal information in cases where the purpose they serve is outlined in the other thirteen exemptions. This exemption resulted in the murder of a famous actress Rebecca Schaeffer after an obsessed fan retrieved her home address from her DMV records, tracking her down and killing her.

In this case, it is imperative that the release of personal information saved on technological devices such as the DMV records can put the lives of people in danger. DMV records and other technological means that save the people’s locations, whether their places of works or homes are a breach of privacy. In the event that individuals with ill intentions access such information, they may use them to create harm or commit fraud.

An essential gadget used in the contemporary generation is the cell phone. Although everyone has his or her own cellphone, it is not a guarantee that the information kept on these cell phones is safe. On the contrary, it is actually not given that the information kept on such cell phones is not at the discretion of holder but rather at the discretion of the cell phone company and the service providers. Ideally, every time one needs to purchase a cell phone, it is almost obligatory to present some form of identification, which the cell phone companies claim to use for tracking the cell phones in case they get lost. By submitting personal information such as identification cards, the cell phone holder exposes private information that may end up in the hands of unscrupulous individuals. The other threat to privacy occurs in the service providers that keep records of all calls made and received. Additionally, the cell phones themselves are designed to give away the location of the cell phone holders.

As Price states, “Since 1999, the Federal Communications Commission has required that all new cell phones in the U.S. use some form of locating technology that makes it possible to find them within 1,000 feet 95 percent of the time; the technology works as long as your phone is on, even if it isn’t being used”. The argument for such technology is that it assists 911 responders in the attempt to locate the cell phone holder in case of emergency. Although the technology is used for locating people during emergencies, the applications are increasingly expanding. Most advertisers have begun using the cell phone GPS for sending text-message coupons for luring potential customers passing by into their stores. Services such as Buddy Beacon and Loopt also capitalize on the cell phone signals and GPS technology by allowing users to view maps that depict the locations of their friends. These technological advancements make it quite difficult for people to keep their location private since in one way, or another someone is capable of capturing their location.

Effect of Technology on Privacy of Private Communications

By definition, privacy in private communications refers to all forms of privacy issues in personal communication that people may wish to keep private. However, personal communication occurs over technological channels that include emails, the social networks, phone calls, and other means of communications. Although the companies that own these communication channels such as Google may guarantee total privacy, privacy advocates have expressed concern that other unauthorized personnel may access such communications. From sending a simple text message, making a phone call to sending emails, every communication that people may perceive as private may just leave traces of information, which is an encroachment on privacy since such information may be accessible to other people who may use them for ill intentions.

Although people have thought of techniques to withhold their private information, it is increasingly becoming a daunting task. For instance, one may opt to hide their caller identity through the phone settings so that the number would be hidden every time a call is placed. Another technique is to buy a prepaid calling card. However, the service providers have the capacity to retrieve the identity of the caller by triangulating on the location of the caller using the GPS technology. In so doing, such communications no longer become private. Ideally, cell phone holders have no freedom to conduct any private communication since the service providers have the authoritative capacity to monitor such communications or any other electronic communications for that matter.

While hiding identity on the cell phone is cumbersome, hiding any activity over the Internet is almost impossible. As such, every time a user accesses the Internet, the corresponding Internet service provider (ISP) detects that such user is online and keeps track of all activities. Price highlights in her piece that “In 2005, the European Parliament passed legislation requiring phone and Internet providers to retain records of calls and online activity for between six months and two years. In 2006, the–U.S. Attorney General Alberto Gonzales and FBI Director Robert Mueller met privately with America’s major ISPs to request that they, too, hold on to these records for two years”. Cookies are a feature of the Internet that keeps records of all the activities conducted online that include usernames, passwords, and any sent emails- among other private communications. Even the searches conducted over the Internet are stored in the cookies and may be retrieved at any time. The fact that online communications cannot be kept private, and somehow someway there is always a record of any online activities conducted even instigated the creation of web erasers that delete searches automatically within a prescribed time. Even when a user sends an unencrypted e-mail, there is a possibility that it skilled hackers could intercept and read it. Additionally, the e-mail may be stored permanently on a server despite deleting it. The Web sites on the Internet routinely keep information on the duration of time spent on given webpages and even the number of mouse clicks made.

Effect of Technology on Privacy and Freedom of Workplace/Public Interaction

When at work or just walking around, there are instances where people want to keep their privacy. However, this is not to be the case in the face of increasing use of video and audio surveillance using state-of-art cameras and audio devices capable of capturing every small bit of activity, whether at work or in the public arena. According to Price, “surveillance is a fact of our electronic society”. No matter how private one needs to be, there is always a high possibility that one is being tracked. As such, people have become so open to government and other surveillance agencies that it has become difficult to so anything private without being monitored. Although video and audio surveillance have proved beneficial, it is increasingly encroaching on the constitutional rights. The United Kingdom, which is small compared to the U.S, has nearly 4 million surveillance cameras. It implies that the U. S has more cameras while more are being added day by day. For instance, the New York City Police Department looks to add 3,000 private and public surveillance cameras to boost security. It means that every American walking on the streets is likely to be monitored by the government.

Besides privacy, technological advancements have had a great impact on people’s freedom, particularly in public places. It is not that technology directly prevents people from doing what they want but rather the corresponding effects of being glued to technological devices while in public places. Jonathan Franken reiterates this concept in “I Just Called To Say I Love You.” Franzen illustrates numerous examples of the way various technologies offset the way people interacted or existed before. One of the technologies highlighted is airport television, which is a supposed nuisance. While it may entertain only a few people, the rest of the travelers busy with their traveling plans often feel bothered by these televisions.

With the emergence of smartphones, people have increasingly developed habits that affect the freedom of those around them. Even where there are many people standing or walking by it is possible to see a whole lot of people glued to their phones. Such habits are so distracting that they may affect the day-to-day lives of other people around the cellphone users. Franzen presents various scenarios to support the claim that many people in America and the world as a whole have developed a bad cell-phone behavior in which they never put the devices down regardless of where or the situation they find themselves in. Franzen highlights a scenario in which people in checkout line are too hooked on the phone conversations that they fail to speak to the clerk. In another example, drivers on a riding plane become distracted on their cellphones while driving. These examples further ascertain the claim that “One of the great irritations of modern technology is that when some new development has made my life palpably worse and is continuing to find new and different ways to bedevil it…”.

Privacy in public interactions can also be highlighted in view of the case of Kyllo v. the United States. In this case, the defendant Kyllo was arguing against the illegal warrantless use of the Thermal Imaging Technology to search his personal premises. The first court ruled in favor of the United States since the search results showed that the accused was actually dealing in marijuana and weapons. Although the Supreme Court ruled that, it would be considered constitutional if law enforcement agencies used Thermal Imaging technology to obtain information that may not be obtained while inside the premises, it was considered as a blow to privacy. If the law enforcement agencies used the technology, it would encroach on the privacy of citizens, especially in cases where the allegations laid is false.

In the workplace too, there is a threat to privacy posed by the technological advancements. For instance, employers have begun to install surveillance cameras, even in personal offices of employees. By doing this, the workers often feel that their privacy work is encroached, especially in areas that need proper attention. The employees, consequently, feel distracted by the thought of being monitored by the seniors. Although workplace surveillance may be regarded as an infringement of freedom and privacy, technological advancements such as e-mail monitoring have proved effective in protecting organizational interests. According to Cox, Goette, and Young, “Organizations must secure sensitive company information, including trade secrets, intellectual property, and customer, employee, and financial data.”. The importance is also highlighted in New York Times that states, “Mr. Sullivan is the one using software to monitor workers. For example, he said, the data might show that someone who is efficient at serving several tables is not very good at sales if that person’s average ticket is less than the restaurant’s.”


Modern technology has culminated in significant challenges to civil liberties such as freedom and privacy, which may not have been envisioned by constitutional framers and other policymakers alike. A host of technological advancements in the current world makes it easier for employers, government agencies, and other interested parties to know the things people do or even their thoughts. They include DNA fingerprinting, duplication of copyrighted computer files, monitoring of electronic communications, and audio/video surveillance- among other innovations. The public has greatly commended these innovations in the effort to reduce terrorism and many criminal activities. However, the continued emergence and the permission to use these technological innovations are a threat to the constitutional liberties of most Americans, who are mostly champions of their rights. The overindulgence of these technological innovations into the lives of the citizens makes it difficult for them to lead private lives since in one way or another one’s information is readily accessible to those interested. Therefore, it is arguable that the continued use of technology may impact negatively on privacy and freedom of Americans and other people around the globe.


Organizational Reorganization: A Case Study of LaCroix Limited

Signs Indicating the Problems that Existed At the Lacroix Limited

There was nothing more captivating to the founder of the LaCroix Industries, Gilles, as a quality, diligently crafted wood frame window. However, the signs that pointed towards the beginning of problems at the corporation became apparent when the management decided to employ a new leadership style.

When the founder, Gilles, decided to work on the expansion of the organization to other regions, he focused his concentration on the survival and success of the Company and therefore he consulted his employees and together they arrived at a complex decision of selling a huge share to the Build-All Product Inc., which is a multinational corporation with an extensive experience in transnational marketing of construction products. Due to the magnitude and the complexity of this step, LaCroix was almost entirely engrossed with the developers which prompted the hiring of a new VP, who managed production, and that marked the beginning of the negative changes that were noted. The symptoms included;

  • The deviation from the company’s initial goal of quality to concentration on the strict alterations regarding routine production processes.
  • A reduced concentration on inventory controls due to demanding inventory guidelines which provided stern procedures regarding the use of supplies for every period.
  • The reduction of employee motivation which made most of them quit.
  • Increased number of defective windows collected from the wholesalers and developers.

Causes of Underlying Problems from a Leadership Perspective

The main reasons why the company faced reduced staff motivation and reduced quality of products were because of the negative change in direction, a change introduced by Vlodoski, who was the new VP.

  • Previously, the corporation had been using a very effective style of transformational leadership which made the employees very motivated, engaged and contented with their lines of duty.
  • The leadership style employed by Vlodoski tampered with employees’ engagement. The new VP did not use a participative style of leadership which called for employees’ involvement in critical decision-making Lacrosse freely and occasionally chatted with his employees amidst brief visits to the corporation; he thanked them for the hard work and commitments, their views regarding the best way forward for the company and any other issue where he might have needed feedback on.
  • The new VP, on the other hand, did not exhibit any commitment to the company’s vision of ensuring super quality windows. He employed a style of leadership which ignored the competencies and experience of the employees and the leader, therefore, kept on commanding them on what to do, where and when to perform their duties. The VP, therefore, initiated the responsibilities, the projects, and the ideas and forwarded them to the employees, after which he specified his desired parameters, standards and strict deadlines for each task.
  • The new VP was more interested in quantity, unlike Lacrosse who was committed to ensuring quality. This, therefore, showed conflicting visions. He forced the staff members to work under his rules, a procedure typical of the military leadership and traditional seniority-oriented line. Vladoski ignored all the procedures the employees were familiar with and applied his personal ideas, a step which resulted in the production of faulty windows.

Vladoski took away autonomy from the experts, introduced stern guidelines and to make matters worse; he never left his office. The employees were forced to quit, expressing the significance of effective styles of management and employee satisfaction. The new leadership did not value the employee feedbacks regarding the improvements necessary for continued success.

Redesigning Organizational Structure to Overcome the Obstacles

The LeCroix Limited Inc. organizational structure refers to the methods used for effective workflow, coordination, labor division, and communication powers which offer useful guidelines to the routine operations of the organization. The structure additionally dictates information and financial aspects among other priority components. Therefore, it is important to redesign the labor division aspect and coordination function to improve the operations of the company.

The company must ensure the appropriate and participative division of labor to the qualified personnel by setting up specialized departments to take care of quality control procedures and other metrics. Participative division of labor will make sure that employees are consulted, and therefore, they are allowed to specialize in jobs that best suit their professional expertise and interests. If this step is applied, the employees can quickly master their lines of duty and lots of time is saved from relocating from one duty place to another. Finally, appropriate and convenient labor division will save a lot of money that would otherwise be used to train the staff members.

On the other hand, effective coordination ensures that all the communication channels are open, and communication can freely flow all the levels of management. Proper and unrestricted coordination also necessitates a faster agreement on important decisions. Moreover, the company should only use job specialization to some extent to avoid complicating the coordination ability of the organization.

The team should also use a decentralized system of management; this system will ensure that more and more qualified and experienced employees are involved in decision-making processes. Decentralization will also lower the pressure encountered by top management and increase the ease, efficiency, and speed of coming up with better decisions.

What Gilles Should Do In the Prevailing Circumstance

Gilles should ensure the mentoring of leaders who are more focused on the perspectives of the employees regarding significant steps were taken by the organization. He should reinstate the participative and democratic leadership styles which involve the employees’ views and uphold respect that should be attributed to their expertise and professional experiences. He should continue to involve his employees in small friendly discussions, or even in breakfast parties like he did before. Additionally, he should also ensure that he rebuild the trust, and emotional connection he had with his employees before the coming in of the new VP by giving them his proposed future plans and asking them for their advice.

Gilles should breed creative collaborations for the active team works to be cultured once again. The team members and all other employees should be treated with respect in equal measures to enable them to have the satisfaction they deserve. Finally, Gilles should only look forward to partnering only with corporations or individuals who demonstrate absolute consistency with his primary goals and objectives. Therefore, before partnering, an extensive research should be carried out to ensure a business relationship like the one that existed with the Build-All company, does not repeat itself.


The Creation of a Cluster of Wood and Technology

The creation of a group of wood and technology was the brainchild of Bolzano region.  Therefore, this project came in the wake of the intense lobby for the area to have a sustainable plan that would adequately meet the demands of its people.  The beginning of this project was small but expanded to a membership base off130 companies coming on board, slightly after three years of the project’s lifetime. The entry of corporates has led to an appreciable operation of the project.  Currently, the project has over 170 members drawn from the business body.  This project is firmly anchored on the precept of robustness to trigger growth, social and economic fulfillment to the citizens. Indeed, there is much to learn from this project as it will unfold in the subsequent sub-chapters.

Problems and ICT Project Development Architect

The wood and technology project is entrenched in providing the basic IT-Infrastructure to implement the project ideas. While the feasibility stage has been acrimoniously passed to have the project into play, the greatest hurdle comes to the identification of a robust system that will coordinate SME’s within the local community. This project is expected to be all-inclusive and will capture the smallest interest of the society, and transform them into viable business objectives. IT-systems would elaborately be possible upon implementation of simpler systems.

At the moment, the current system fails to meet the required interest of the users and is occasioned to multiple failures, thus subjecting the intended users to operational hurdles.  The design of a tailor-made ICT network seems to thwart the well-intended course of this project.  Therefore, the intervention of Cluster Alpine Network program would be the best solution to the hurdles that the project is likely to face, especially of its IT structure.  This platform would advocate for the development of five clusters run by the regional administrators in discharging roles attributed to the project’s scope line.  The cluster management team would then be charged with the running of communication and aligning of tasks within the select groups, before issuing their feedback to the primary Programme administrators.

Objectives of the Project

The development and implementation of the Cluster for Wood and Technology are spearheaded by the distinct purpose under which the project is construed. Thus, the primary significance of this project is initiated modernization and expansion of the market for various local enterprises.  Also, the entrenchment of a four-tire ICT framework is aimed at instilling precepts of technology transfer with the view of offering a platform for the identification of new products, the prerequisite know-how, as well as different production processes.  Also, this project, with the support of regional authority aims to offer the essential support for creating clusters, which often integrates cooperation as well as networking between SMEs, and the mainstream deployed for developmental exercises.


The success of this project is inherent in its application and ability to meet the set objectives. Since it’s a one of a kind projects that is aimed at turning around the fate of the community, its application must be made by its stated objectives. The success of this project relates to the use of ICT platform that will divide the entire population into clusters of 60 individuals. Besides, the incorporation of a new position of cluster manager is expected to meet the full prospects of the project regarding its operationality and implementation.

Indeed, the success of this project depends on the implementation of the Alpine ICT infrastructure within its fold, and this will meet the full obligation of the project in transforming the lives of the community members.

The Alpine Cluster activity

The opportunity of being offered the innovative Actions program was to experiment the broad strategy of how well clusters of 60 individuals can be developed in the traditional sectors of the regional economy of Bolzano. By imagining that the general methodology adopted for the programme management was the same for a success of each area. The theoretical basis focused on the Porters model as a start point for the clustering activities, putting more emphasis on project management and training by use of local ICT tools. The regional authority launched and opened SMEs which submitted cooperation projects for innovation; eight projects were financed finally and that involved 28 companies in various fields of technology.


By exploring South Tyrol, a small Alpine region consists of an employment rate of up to 100% was challenged with fragmentation and weak innovation profile. Considering all the challenges, a strategy based on the idea that without changing decentralization and traditional culture, it is possible to influence the regional economy in working on tangible factors related to human resources, ICT transfer, and enterprise management. To have a newly branded and close partnership between public and private partners, in the promotion of regional competitiveness, clusters have been identified as an appropriate way of providing companies with tools that are dynamic for a corporation, innovation, and qualification. Existing public policies to SMEs are necessary for regional authorities to reconsider in aiming to develop the more service-oriented system. Cluster Alpine network is founded on 3 pillars; 1) the creation of clusters of about 3-5 of at least 30 enterprises working on innovative topics; 2) Development of platforms for networking and services for SMEs in promoting contacts and synergies in developing relevant information to encourage specific know-how of ICT tools; 3) the qualification of entrepreneurs and cluster managers so as they improve their capacities in project management in various fields of marketing, networking, and cooperation, innovation and technology transfer.

To involve and to motivate the SMEs, cluster initiative policy ensures it is providing business-oriented actions and conclusive results. To achieve the results, the regional authorities have therefore launched three open calls for inviting SMEs to submit projects for innovation.


The wood sector is a combination of traditional handicrafts, and modern technologies and the markets have proved so crucial in the success of the innovation. Wood manufacture is mainly developed by family companies that are always looked upon to maintain folk traditions and values. The cooperation was put on the job of discovering topics that would complement the innovations such as well-being, sustainable buildings, light and acoustic optimization. Beyond ICT introduction, a significant change was cultural. Therefore, public policies in supporting SMEs and strengthening the ability of public/private partnerships to promote innovation were created. Furthermore, the University of Bolzano has created a two-year training course, “the Management Academy” which has developed an interest in the region.


Wood and ICT has apparently been involved in sustaining clusters for principal concerns for the managers of the programme who decided to focus on well-established regional sectors. The Alpine Cluster Development Methodology adopted wood together with other areas which were structured in phases. The Cluster involved entrepreneurs from the beginning through various public campaigns that were organized, to encourage networking and recognizing new topic within the regional sector of the economy. Wood Technology Cluster was approved on July 8, 2008.


The wood sector is the proper choice for cluster development. It is important to focus on the subject so as to provide unique position, competence to companies to join the initiatives. When you react to the needs of the clusters and solve small but quite concrete problems, benefits are quickly realized. A right balance approach is a right way to develop cluster initiatives for innovation. Cluster management development is perceived to be management by trial and error.

Application into the Bachelor of Science in IT & Technology

Ever since childhood while still in the lower grades I have always had a deep interest in IT & Technology. The interest first developed after the introduction to the workplace computers by my uncle, the experience which I always remember vividly and gave me the sentiment of wanting to know how the computing machines operate. The curiosity has never left me, but steadily growing more insightful and fervent with every experience I have been encountering in the field right from the high school. For that reason, the primary rationale of writing is to request for an admission to the master’s program in IT & Technology in your college as well as the personal reasons for making a choice.

I believe in your college as its vision is similar to mine; ever working to exceed the expectations and limits of nature. As an upcoming scientist, it was the same drive that took me to the Ohio University to study bachelor’s program in IT & Technology, and until then, information technology has been a past time. The primary goals for wanting to study Bachelor in IT & Technology is to pave way and advance in the sector so that I can be able to attain Ph.D. program for the advancement of research in my chosen profession. Moreover, I have the intention of developing the abilities of the other individuals in the field especially students.

The subjects I chose to study at my A-Levels have assisted me dearly in the development of both my mindset and understanding of the career. An excellent example is a Computer study that has offered me a superior acumen into the commerce facets of the information technology industry and Physics that has increased my understanding of how various parts of a computer operates. When it comes to mathematics, I was lucky enough for having an instructor who had interest in computer science and has been especially supportive of providing me with books like Understanding the world of IT, thus nurturing my passions in the information technology profession.

I have been working part time as a web assistant with Telecom wireless, and through participating fully in research experiment in that capacity, I have become more engaged and alive than ever before. Through that, I have received a whole new perception on how the commerce functions in the world of information technology. For instance, lettering a plan of activities, to me, was absolutely a Martian occurrence; however, over the past few months, I have investigated and planned, and eventually got the satisfaction reward of the accomplishment after the completion of the project. I have also learned a lot through the achievement of bachelor’s degree in the field especially when it comes to teamwork and delegation of duties as, without it, our project would not have been a success.

My desire to further achieve more knowledge in IT & Technology forces me to join your college, thanks to the experience, as I have realized that such a university is my future and through it, I can accomplish my dream as it is known for having good professors as concerns research and instructions. Recently, your college received the Jury Special Gold Award for the completion of the project whose leadership was by Doctor John Williams, and I came to realize that he is the head of the IT & Technology department. Such an individual would be of great significance to me particularly that I have the plans for carrying out further research in the profession. Additionally, your college’s alumni team has the credit for being very supportive to the members when it comes to the matters concerning the project executions and can be of importance as regards the expansion of the firm that I have already started.

Additionally, I am attracted to your college because I strive to study with the diverse group of individuals that the college accommodates wholeheartedly; the university has a deep respect for the value of diversity. From personal experience, I have the knowledge that for the achievement of trust, integrity, and success that the college values, there is the need for new people who are capable of creating a proper environment for the morals, and I believe I am such an individual. I also have a feeling that my setting as a web assistance will offer an innovative perspective on the institution’s search for knowledge and make it even more successful in the future.

I have a strong belief that my proficient documentation demonstrates that I do have the actual milieu regarding the IT & Technology requirements. Notwithstanding my past achievements in the profession, I still consider myself worthless without the masters and even the Ph.D. in IT & Technology as I will not be able to achieve goals especially when it comes to research. The program would allow me to be with excellent communication skills to express matters and ideas effectively as regards the investigation and teamwork. I am ready to put all my effort for my success in the program and also improve the college ranking globally when it comes to the achievements of the alumni. Thanks in advance for considering my application.

A Beautiful Mind: A Nursing Evaluation of Schizophrenia

The film “A Beautiful Mind” is a documentary that bases on John Forbes Nash, Jr’s life. The film depicts the treatment and symptoms of Paranoid Schizophrenia in which John Nash suffers. In the movie, John shows incidences of hallucinations (visual and auditory) and frequently describe interactions with imaginary individuals. In this article, an attempt to present a reflective case study is undertaken for the patient as portrayed in the film. When Nash (the patient) is treated for hallucinations, he shows certain negative responses to the drugs in which to overcome, he avoids them, and as a result, relapsing into his previous condition. Later, the patient mention taking “newer” drugs, which also assist him to differentiate between delusion and reality. As the film approaches the end, John is seen to have mastered his disorder and overcome it by learning to ignore the hallucinations (“A Beautiful Mind: Analyzing How Schizophrenia is Portrayed in Movies versus Reality | Disability in Media Review Blog”, 2017). This article outlines the alternative treatment and the recommendation for future health nursing practices. For instance, earlier detection and recognition of the symptoms can assist treat mental disorders such as Schizophrenia faster. The paper also attempts to explore the societal and medical issues revolving around this chronic and debilitating illness. In hopes of enlightening people about the available resources, the paper looks at the support and counseling groups accessible to individuals who have schizophrenia and their families.

According to the film, the protagonist portrays the classic paranoid schizophrenia symptoms. He, John Nash, had schizophrenia that was only diagnosed at a later stage. In his college life at Princeton, Nash’s best friend and roommate was a person named Charles, who is then depicted to be one of his imaginary friends. As time progresses, his imaginations or hallucinations become more violent and frequent as he soon convinces himself that he is working for the US government on a top secret assignment in which nobody has access to, not even his wife. While teaching, he started missing classes, which resulted to him being summoned by a Psychiatrist who looked into his condition. Later, he concluded that the stay at the asylum was an attempt by the Soviet of trying to stop him from working with the government on his secret mission. At first, his wife failed to consent with the psychiatrist as she believed her husband’s story to be very real (“A Beautiful Mind: Analyzing How Schizophrenia is Portrayed in Movies versus Reality | Disability in Media Review Blog”, 2017). Later, she accepted the fact of her husband’s condition when she went to his college and discovered what he used to do during work. She also found magazines clippings attached all over the room and the unopened confidential envelopes, which were meant to be sent out to Mr. Parcher, the person who put John to the mission. The film attempt to show how John had to face reality when his imaginary world appeared so real to him. He, at last, confront his reality after the realization that Marcee, Charles’ niece, never became any older than when he first met her. With regular medication, John learns how to ignore his imaginary friends in his life and regain his old job back, at Princeton. In the end, he wins a Nobel Prize in Economic and lives a satisfactory life.

Early intervention and detection of the condition are the best approaches to treatment. However, patients with schizophrenia need to undergo extensive treatment. Enhancements and advancement made in treatment and the field of psychotherapy, intervention, nursing practices in mental health, medicine and societal awareness can effectively combat schizophrenia.

This disorder (paranoid schizophrenia) is among the numerous categories of schizophrenia that is chronic. Individuals suffering from this type of mental ailment usually have difficulties in interpreting reality in a normal way and are said to have Psychosis. More than 40 percent of schizophrenia reports are dominated by paranoid schizophrenia. The side effects of the disorder start to be noted at a later age (around 25 to 30). The most common symptoms exhibited by the patient of paranoid schizophrenia include delusions and hallucinations, which lack association with the reality. These are also referred to as the positive symptoms, which are detected easily. The capability to function and think in a healthy is distorted, and though the condition is a milder type of the ailment, it can result in long term ramifications accompanied with other complication such as suicidal behavior (McAuliffe, O’connor, & Meagher, 2014). A sense of grandiosity marks the onset of the illness, and this dominance is noted in the case of delusion and a persecution sense. At times, the beginning of the disorder is quite sudden, which can be coupled with deterioration in the physiological and mental condition of the patient in a rapid manner. On the other hand, the identification and recognition of the symptoms can be challenging for individuals with no prior exposure or experience with the condition. However, the perceptive friends and relatives can be able to spot a heightened state of nervous tension, anger, argumentative behavior, irritability, and jealousy. The negative symptom or the other forms of symptom is reduced emotions displayed by healthy individuals. For instance, when a person with hebephrenic schizophrenia laughs in a funeral. Also, the loss of energy and lack of interest in life is a more complex symptom to note, and at times, it can be confused with apathy or depression. However, with proper treatment and diagnosis, the patient can overcome the symptoms and live happily.

Nash’s treatment comprised majorly of the recommendation made by Dr. Rosen of insulin shock therapy that is a conventional approach to treating mental illness and currently is considered to be an antipsychotic drug and obsolete. The convulsive therapy and insulin coma therapy now have been replaced by antipsychotic medications, which portray less adverse effects and greater efficacy. Antipsychotic drugs are soothing medicines, which are utilized in the treatment of bipolar and schizophrenia disorder. Clozapine was the first generation of antipsychotic medications that acted on the neurotransmitter sites receptor, dopamine.

In the film, the symptoms exhibited by John Nash are very classic and distinct. The imaginations of Charles, his roommate and later that of the US government official, Mr. Parcher, as well as Marcee, depict that his ailment was spotted at a much-advanced phase where the paranoid schizophrenia diagnosis required to be symptomatically treated coupled with continued therapy and medication. However, Nash is put on some medications that are insulin shock therapy and antipsychotic drugs. He was also kept under constant supervision at the mental hospital in which he was confined. Some severe condition called for stricter measures in which he was bound and held in solitary confinement.

When these medicines are taken for a prolonged period, the common side effects include diabetes, weight gain, tremors, drowsiness, and spasms. Other symptoms such as tardive dyskinesia that cause twitching in the mouth region are also noted in some patients (Henriksen & Parnas, 2012). When these symptoms manifest as the patient takes medication, the intervention of the doctor should be sought. Patients with schizophrenia have to be in a life-long treatment for the condition.

In the film, the use of shock therapy is portrayed in the form of insulin shock therapy. Nash underwent this type of therapy 5 times in a week for 10 weeks. In this conventional mode of treatment, it was assumed that the convulsions were a method of schizophrenia occurrence prevention. Therefore, this approach of therapy was utilized on patients to prompt seizure while electroconvulsive as applied to protect the patient from personality disorders. However, currently, doctors administer anesthesia and various form of muscle-relaxants to make this therapy bearable.

Also, the patient is required to undergo behavioral therapy apart from the medical intervention such as social skills training to maintaining a healthy patient functioning in the society. Awareness and support programs need to be conducted for the patients and the family members. Community level support needs to be given to the caregiver for them to cope with the condition as well as relapse prevention.

The initial step in the prognosis and detection of the schizophrenic clinical condition as well as bipolar patients is through techniques such as magnetic resonance, brain’s CT scan, and other techniques of imaging, which can aid exclude possible misperception in the disease diagnosis. With the lack of any medical test, which can warn an individual of the onset or prevention of the disorder, the psychiatrist needs to carry out a thorough evaluation of the family background, as well as the genetic history of the patient’s family. The doctor also needs to consider the course the ailment has taken and the period in which the symptoms have been predominant, patient response to therapy and medication.


Q.1 P137

Actual example concurs with various humanistic approaches than hypothetical. Ramadan presentation will use actual examples from Quran.

Q.1 P145

One of the comparisons that I have used when explaining something to a friend was how I felt that Hillary Clinton was a good candidate for the president. One example of contrast that I can use in favoring one position over the other is how Obama was a better president than Trump regarding how he handled Muslim issues. The Ramadan speech will compare Muslim lives to that of Prophet Muhammad.

Q.1 P148

One might know when they are making ethical decisions when they use correct, accurate, complete, unbiased and non-offensive evidence towards the target audience. Supporting materials strengthen the claims. My Ramadan presentation will use evidence from the Quran

Q.2 P156

The purpose of the speech is the bedrock of the main idea, and thus it has a positive or a negative influence. The main idea of my last speech is below the criteria that the chapter is promoting that and this is because the purpose was not directly linked to the main idea. The Ramadan presentation will ensure that the purpose of speech supports the main idea.

Q.2 P161

The principles of organization are the organizational patterns that are used by a speaker to convey the main ideas that make up a speech. I would prefer one pattern over another based on the nature of speech that I am to give. For instance, during Ramadan, I can give a speech based on fidelity because Ramadan is linked to the life experiences that Muslims have.

Q.2 P162

The strategic organization allows for a speech to be designed in a manner that elicits a response from the audience. The balance and symmetry ensure that all aspects of speech are emphasized. The number of main ideas allows for the considerations of how the audience might absorb the information, and the primacy and recency effect ensures that the primary focus is handled lastly. The last part of my Ramadan presentation will be about devotion to the Islamic principles for easier remembrance by the audience.

Q.2 P165

The function of transition is to assist with the flow of the speech. Examples of transition that are used include rhetorical questions and signposts. An example of transition during my Ramadan presentation is the use of signpost such as “another reason to be a devoted Muslim is the promise of a good life after death.”

Q.2 P171

The preliminary idea that I have regarding a good way of introducing my speech is the thesis statement that has the main idea of the speech. During the Ramadan presentation, I will begin like this “being a devoted Muslim is a way of living based on the teachings of Quran.”

Q.2 P176

The conclusion that I would use in my next speech is the revisiting of the introduction, and this is terms of preview and summary. An example of the conclusion of my next speech is “the goal of a devoted Muslim is to live according to the teachings of Quran.”

Q.3 P181

There are two types of outlines. The formal outline which is a full sentenced presentation that has references while keyword outline is a summary of the formal outline. It is important to use both outlines in my Ramadan speech as one will be detailed, and the other will be a summary that I can present to the class.

Q.3 P183

The use of a consistent system based on outlining symbols and indentations ensure that there is the identification of the relationship that exists between materials used as support and ideas through the designation of the various components of the speech. An example in my speech is the first main point which is “Ramadan is a strong pillar of Islam.”

Q.3 P188

Having a clear working outline that helps with brainstorming, thinking and conducting research. In my speech bout Ramadan, the speaking notes will be made from an outline regarding the significance of Ramadan.

Q.4 P197

Identification of a denotative language is through literal meaning that the word has, and a connotative language is based on the meaning of the word regarding its appearance and the perception that one has. Emotionally charged language can affect my emotions negatively or positively. In my speech about, Ramadan I intend to evoke hope to the audience through the use of encouraging words.

Q.4 P201

They have lost their originality and which affects their meaning. In my Ramadan speech I will avoid using “due to the fact that Allah is against sin,” but instead, I will use “because Allah dislikes sin.”

Q.4 P205

Active language is attractive to the listeners than passive language because it is captivating and it also commands attention. An example of a passive language to an active language is “Ramadan is practiced annually by Muslims” to “Muslims annually practice Ramadan.”

UA 10-1

Question 1

The first instance by Fredrick Douglass is when he mentioned that “it is wrong to make men brutes, to rob them of their liberty, to work them without wages.” The second is “to sell them at auction, to slander their families, to knock out their teeth, to burn their flesh.” Douglass’ use of vivid of language in these instances has appealed to my emotions regarding the pity that I feel for those who were slaves.

Question 2

“To flay their flesh with a lash.” It indicates the through beatings that the slaves received.

“To load their limbs with irons.” It indicates the hard labor that the slaves were subjected to.

Question 3

The speech might have made the listeners to rethink their position regarding the concept of slavery based on its negativity to the slaves.

Q.5 P221

Sounding good is speaking in an easier manner but having nothing much to say while being sound is having ideas that have passed the test of evidence as well as reasoning. A presentation regarding Ramadan will involve facts and reasoning borrowed from Quran

Q.5 P230

Extemporaneous delivery is when the speaker adapts to the audience and the situation. It works well when the speaker is passionate about the topic. For instance, my presentation about Ramadan will be extemporaneous.

Q.5 P234

Impromptu is speaking unplanned. Memorized is speaking from memory. The manuscript is speaking using a script. The advantage of impromptu is that it allows one to speak about what they have in mind and disadvantage is that one might not have a well-researched information. Memorized is advantageous as one speaks about what they know and disadvantage is that one is limited to what they have memorized. The manuscript is advantageous as one gives information that they have researched. A disadvantage is that it disconnects the speaker from the audience. I will apply a combination of manuscript and memorized speech during my Ramada presentation

Q.5 P237

If I am giving my presentation about Ramadan and an audience member is hostile, I would tell them to leave the room respectfully if they cannot follow the rules. If an audience member asks three questions in a row, I would answer them based on how they have been asked. If I cannot answer the asked question, I would admit my lack of idea about it, and I will inform the person that I will do more investigation about it. If there are no questions asked, I would thank the audience and take a seat.

Q.6 P245

Graphs can be used as to immediate, concrete and verisimilitude information. In my Ramadan presentation, I will use a graph to show the growth of Islam over the years.

Q.6 P251

Audio and visual presentation aids are widely available for speakers. Audio is advantageous because it makes it easier for the audience to hear the speaker and the disadvantage is that, it does not create a mental image. Visual is advantageous as it creates mental picture and its disadvantage is that it might not have sound. I will use both audio and visual in my Ramadan presentation.

Q.6 P254

I will ensure that my presentation is effective through the use of quality visual and audio aids. The video recordings and sounds regarding the Ramadan presentation will be of high quality.

Q.6 P256

The principles to remember are the use of the visuals as symbols through the power that they have and their application in promoting understanding. The presentation aids allow members to understand the presentation as they involve the source of information. My Ramadan presentation will involve visuals from well-known sources.

Q.7 P260

The overreaching purpose of an informative speech is to raise awareness and articulate alternatives. My informative speech about Ramadan will be to inform my audience about its importance.

Q.7 P263

A student might be told to give a presentation about an aspect of religion such as Ramadan. The effectiveness of this situation will be the description of the background of Ramadan and explanation of its importance.

Q.7 P264

Thesis: Ramadan is an activity that is religious in nature.

Ramadan entails special and specific prayers to Allah.

Ramadan involves fasting for all devoted Muslims.

Q.7 P271

The role of the listener-motivation when it comes to informative speech is to capture and maintain the audiences’ attention. In my Ramadan presentation, the relevance of the topic will be applied.

Q.7 P273

Ethical communication applies the use of evidence that is accurate, it encourages active listening and allows the audience to ask questions. In my presentation